Old Huozhou Government Office and the "Gongsheng Ming, Lian Sheng Wei"
Author Wen Kuo (Shanxi)
Translator Jin Zi(Beijing)
Old Huozhou government office is located in the north side of East Street, Huozhou City, Shanxi Province. Among the cultural landscapes scattered throughout the country, Huozhou Department has a unique cultural status. As early as 2000, Huozhou Department was listed in the "China's Four Ancient Officials International Tourism Line" a安全期怎样算,霍州署衙与“公生明，廉生威”||中英文对照,联机游戏long with the Beijing Forbidden City, Baoding Zhili Governor's Office, and Henan Neixiang Count书拉密女小站y, to introduce the ancient Chinese bureaucrats to tourists from all over the world. culture. At the same time, the Huozhou Department of Health is also known as one of the "four major representatives" of the Chinese government's Tuen Mun building. The official name of the "Gongsheng Ming, Lian Sheng Wei" is the name of the Huozhou government office.
Although the Huozhou government office ewas designated by the State Council as a “National Key Cultural Relics Protection Unit” in 1996, it was listed as “Integrity Education Base” by Shanxi Province in 2014. However, in Shanxi, the “national security” number of “thousands” of cultural relics, the Huozhou government office is not an eye-opener, and the ancient Tuen Mun buildings in China are not too small. No need to go far, there is a beautifully renovated county in Pingyao Ancient City, which is 100 kilometers away from the Huozhou Administration.
Huozhou government office’s "He De He Neng" is juxtaposed with the famous Forbidden City? How to become one of the "four major representatives of ancient Chinese Tuen Mun architecture"? What is the connection between the famous saying "Gongsheng Ming, Lian Shengwei" and the Huozhou Department? These questions have deeply evoked my curiosity and attracted me to the front of the Huozhou Department.
The Huozhou government office was founded in the Sui and Tang Dynasties and has a history of more than 1,300 years. Since the day of its completion, the Huozhou Department has been a place where the emperors of the dynasties will live and work together. It is said that the earliest was the shogunate of the Song Dynasty, and later became the famous sergeant of the Tang Dynasty. The government is awkward. During the Yuan Dynasty, the emperors used the Huozhou Department as a temporary palace when they were hunting, but it was a pity that the original building was destroyed in the great earthquake of the seventh year of Yuanda De (AD 1303). In the next year's Dade eight years, Jianzhou failed to spend, and Zhizhou Li Boyuan quickly rebuilt the Huozhou authorities on the original site of the ruins. Later, the Ming and Qing dynasties also continued to supplement and repair the Huozhou Administration, so that the scale of the Department continued to expand and improved. In the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Kangxi was stationed here, and even the Empress Dowager Cixi was also on the way to the West Gate of the Eight-Power Allied Forces in Beijing.
However, the main role of the Huozhou Department is for office workers. From the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the Republic of China, local officials have been working here, even after the liberation, for a long time, the local government agencies in Huozhou still do business here. In this respect, the Huozhou Department may be the longest-serving bureaucrat.
The existing ancient buildings of the Huozhou Department are mostly the remains of the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The total area is 21,000 square meters and there are more than 180 large and small houses. It is the only state-level government that is currently relatively well preserved in China.衙 Building. The entire Huozhou Department is divided into three major buildings, the central axis an马紫菜d the east-west auxiliary line. The scale is large, the layout is rigorous, and the building is exquisite. Whether it is location selection, building scale, overall layout or shape design, the Huozhou Department is The classics in ancient bureaucracy have a very high value of visits and academic research.
Even in the Beijing Imperial Palace, Hebei Baoding Zhili Governorate, Shanxi Huozhou Department, Henan Neixiang County, the central level, provincial level, state level, county level ancient four-level official cultural buildings, Huozhou Department It is also the oldest in history. The main building of the Yuan Dynasty is more than a hundred years old in the morning of the Forbidden City.
From the south to the north, the existing buildings of the Huozhou Department mainly include: "Guo Hu Mingjun" archway, Diaolou, Tanjung, Yimen, Shu Road, Jieshi Pavilion, East and West Sections, Lobby, East and West Ear House, Ertang, Jing Yixuan, Lianzheng Culture Center, etc.
Standing in front of the main entrance of Huozhou Department, the first thing I saw was a tall four-posted archway standing on the street. The front of the archway was the four characters of "Guo Mingming County". The tone looked a bit big, but Huozhou also It really deserves these four words. Although Huozhou is not surprising nowadays, in ancient times, Huozhou was the traffic hub of the northward grassland and the south and the middle of the Central Plains. It was also the ancient "combat doaezplace for military strategists." As an ancient military relationship, the ancient Huozhou City once stationed a large number of troops. In the ancient military history of China, the name of Huozhou has appeared repeatedly. In the war of reunifying the whole country of the Tang Dynasty, in the wars of the Central Plains under the Yuanyuan South, the forces of all parties repe安全期怎样算,霍州署衙与“公生明，廉生威”||中英文对照,联机游戏atedly competed for Huozhou City. It is not uncommon for the famous ministers to smash the sand and even die here.
On the left side of the archway, the words "Ping" are written on the left hand side, and the words on the right side are written as "Wangli". These two words refer to the powers and responsibilities of officials in the ancient Huozhou Department. "Planning" means that the officials of the Department have the power to hear the case and the responsibility of maintaining the local security. "Protection" refers to the power of officials to collect taxes, collect money, and also protect the court's tax duties. These two powers and responsibilities show that officials have great powers, but the responsibilities are also extremely heavy.
Behind the archway is a huge tower, which is 15 meters wide from east to west and 11 meters long from north to south. It was built by Zhizhou Dangkewen in the 21st year of Ming Jiajing (AD 1542). There is a brick-carved title above the front of the Loulou Cave, engraved with the word "Gongchen". These two words were originally from the "The Analects of Confucius", "for political integrity, such as Beichen, where the stars are arched." The meaning of this sentence is that if the politicians can have a German model, everyone will gather around you like the stars around Beichen. Here is to warn officials to cultivate the virtues of the sages, 科力德洗地机to influence the people with noble conduct, and only in this way can "close to the people, the distant, the world."
Passing through the tall doorway of the tower, you came to an open small square. It is called “Dan Yu” here. In ancient time梁慧贤s, it was the place where officials organized ritual sacrifices and the people’s “fire”. In ancient times, every time the holidays were over, the people gathered in the “Dan Yu” to “song the fire” to celebrate the festival. At this time, the solemn and dignified officials on weekdays will also put down the shelves, share the joy with the people, exchange feelings with the people, and celebrate the festive season. However, in modern times, the people have a new and wider square. The relatively small "Dan Yu" will no longer assume the responsibility of "sports fire", and gradually become a small parking lot, let the Huozhou Department visit Visitors do not need to compete with other car owners for limited parking spaces on the roadside, which is considered to be the best use. The mottled bluestone on the ground of Tanjung seems to be confirming that there have been laughter and joy in the past.
Passing through the "Dan Yu", stepping up the steps behind the small square, he came to the second door of the official office - before the gate. Yimen Gate is the second main entrance of the Huozhou Administration and was built during the Jiajing Period of the Ming Dynasty. The door is four beams and eight columns, five miles and four miles, the scale is magnificent, and the "Huozhou Department" gold medal big sign is hanging above the instrument door.
There are two side doors on both sides of the door. Why do you have to add two more doors to the main entrance? Because in an欢爱谷cient times, unless it was a more important thing, the door was not always open. People usually go to the Huozhou Department to go to the East Gate of Yimen. The East Gate is also called the "people door." The West Gate is known as the "Ghost Gate" because it was taken when the ancient prisoners were pushed to death. This can be distinguished from the shape of the two doors. There are some wooden fences above the wooden doors of the East Gate, and the wooden doors of the West Gate are completely sealed with wooden boards. Perhaps this is a superstitious ancient man, in order to prevent the execution of the death penalty. The ghost of the crime, come to a "method" of "harassing" the bureaucrats!
There are two stone statues on the side of the instrument door, namely, Qi Chigong and Qin Qiong. The postures of the two people are exactly the same as the paintings of the door gods posted by the common people in the New Year. This is very interesting. You must know that the Huozhou Department was once handsome. In the government, where is the owner of the house “watching the door in person”?
After I found out, I realized that it was the fierce commander of the warlord Liu Wuzhou who had defeated Tang Jun several times. The reputation of his brave and brave warfare made the newly established Tang Jun quite jealous. Soon after, Qin Wang Li Shimin personally led the army to attack Liu Wuzhou. In the current Huozhou area, he used the strategy to defeat Yu Chigong twice and beat him to lose his armor. Later, Liu Wuzhou was defeated by Li Shimin and fled to Turkic. He did not want to follow Liu Wuzhou’s Yu Chigong and his men. Li Shimin admired the enthusiasm of Yu Chigong and sent people into the city to persuade him. Yu Chigong also greatly admired Li Shimin's military abilities. The two cherished each other, so Yu Chigong made up his mind to surrender the Tang army, and the place where Yu Chigong returned to the Tang army was in Huozhou.
The reason why Qi Chigong and Qin Qiong’s statues are “pull at the door” may be due to two reasons: First, the Huozhou Administration’s government agency, which is a law enforcement, trial, and execution, really needs these two people to be expelled as “gate gods”. Ghostly charm, the town demon evil spirits; Second, Huozhou as a place where Yan Chigong joined the Tang army, also need a form of commemoration!
Walking into the door, it is a long ramp that is one meter above the ground. The ramp connects directly to the gate and the Yuan Dynasty lobby. In ancient times, the martyrdom was the ceremonial way to welcome officials. Whenever an official came and went to the Huozhou authorities, the servants and the staff of the squadron would stand on both sides of the martyrdom to welcome or send the officials.
In the ramp more than ten meters away from the instrument gate, there is also a wooden archway with four columns and three rooms. The frontal title is “the world is public” and the back title is “Qing Shen Qin”. There are two stone monuments on both sides of the archway. The two stone monuments are “Gongsheng Ming, Lianshengwei” on the front; the back is “Er. Lulu, the people’s fat and the people are easy to abuse, and it’s hard to deceive.”
This wooden archway is known as the “Gengshi Pavilion”. Its role is to engrave the official name of the official name on the stone tablet and stand on the road to let the officials observe it day by day and watch it from time to time. This warned the bureaucrats, the official virtues of the hundred kinds, the public is the first.
In ancient China, why did people think that public integrity is so important? Why does public security become an important moral standard for ancient Chinese officials?
In fact, as early as the Spring and Autumn Period, when Confucius founded Confucianism, he emphasized that "politics is the virtue", and advocated that politicians should be based on morality, "cultivating, uniting, governing the country, and flattening the world". This is not only the ancient Chinese. The creed of man is also the value orientation of life that officials should have in that era. In ancient Chinese society, the quality of official moral cultivation is not only related to the good or bad of social conditions, but also to the rise and fall of state power.
Just like the "the world is the public" on the front of the "Guanshiting" archway, it tells the officials that "the world is the world of the world", not only about the "public" but also about "justice."
When the t安全期怎样算,霍州署衙与“公生明，廉生威”||中英文对照,联机游戏hinkers and poets of the dynasties elaborated the connotation of the official virtue from different angles, they all put the virtue of "just and unselfish" in the first place. For example, in "Shangshu", there are words: "Publicity and publicity, and the people's permission"; "No partial, no party, no kingdom." What is meant here is that if the ruling party holds the public mind and destroys the private desire, and the public interest is divided by the public interest, the people can be convinced and trustworthy; the governors are fair and impartial, the state's governance will be orderly, and the state's decrees will be unimpeded. The entire country can thrive. In Huainanzi, it is said: "Fair and unselfish, one word and all people are in harmony." Here is to say that if the ruling party can be fair and selfless, even if it is just a word, the people will unanimously agree, support and unite. . The poet Chen Shidao of the Song Dynasty had a poem: "Who is a rich man in the past 100 years, and a generation of loyalty to the public." This means that those who have the power and status in history, who else remembers them t安全期怎样算,霍州署衙与“公生明，廉生威”||中英文对照,联机游戏oday? The merits and reputation of an era will only be given to those who are single-minded. Even in traditional operas, people are also using the "iron-free" Ba初中女生的胸部o Zheng to explain the meaning of "public".
On the back of the "Kingshi Pavilion" archway, there are three characters of "Qing Shen Qin", which is also the official virtue. These three words were first written by Sima Zhaoxun and Chang Yu安全期怎样算,霍州署衙与“公生明，廉生威”||中英文对照,联机游戏: "For the officials, when they are clear, when they are cautious, when they are diligent, and when they are doing these things, why are they not ruined?" The interpretation of today's words is: being an official Long, when "clear", is to be fair and strict, and clean and honest; when "cautious", it is necessary to work diligently, be cautious; when "diligence", it is to be loyal to the government, diligent and pragmatic.
So, which of the three is more important, clear, cautious, and diligent? This issue Sima Zhao also discussed with his subordinates. Among his subordinates, some said that "the Qing is the founda无限远点的牵牛星tion"; some said that "the cautious is the big"; som秦王太妃传e said that "the diligent is the first". Different opinions come from different angles and have their own internal truths. But in fact, these three are parallel relationships, all of which are important, and the three have their own internal connections, and can even transform each other. Those who are not "clear" will not be "cautious" or "diligent"; those who are not "cautious" will also be difficult to "clear" and difficult to "diligent"; those who do not "diligent" will also lead to not "clear" or "careful". "Clear, be cautious, and diligent" are interrelated and indispensable. However, if you can "repair these three," then "what is wrong!"
So in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the words "Qing, Shen, Qin" were used as rumors of the emperor's admonition of officials. Under the personal advocacy of the emperor, they were placed within the authority and above the stone pavilion. In order to warn officials to be clean, cautious, and diligent in government affairs, the only way to be an official is to serve the party.
On the front side of the stone tablet on both sides of the stone guard pavilion, the east side of the book is "Gongsheng Ming" and the west side is "Lianshengwei". These six words are quoted by countless people and are listed as mottos by countless officials, but few people understand this. The six-character rumor actually came out in the Ming Dynasty. In the earlier period, there were only three words "Gongsheng Ming" on the front of the stone.
Before the Ming Dynasty, there was no “Jingshi Pavilion”. There was only one “stone monument”. The stone monument only had the rumor of “Gongsheng Ming”, and the monument stood in the middle of the road, reminding the bureaucrats who came and went, and the reason The word "Jingshi Pavilion" was changed to facilitate access, on the other hand, because the three-character rumors have changed from s安全期怎样算,霍州署衙与“公生明，廉生威”||中英文对照,联机游戏ix characters to rumors since the Ming Dynasty.
The evolution of these six-word rumors is extremely deep in relation to the three people. One is the nephew of one of the Confucian "three saints" during the Warring States Period. One is the famous minister who was known for his integrity in the Ming Dynasty, and the other is the Huozhou Xuezheng Cao Duan in the early Ming Dynasty.
As early as in the Warring States Period, in Anze County, which is less than a hundred miles away from today's Huozhou Administration, there was a Confucian “post-sanctification”—the scorpion. This great thinker has a unique perspective on "justice." He has such an elaboration in his work "Xunzi-不苟": "Public life is bright, partial darkness." The meaning here is that fairness and justice can make people understand things, and partial bias will make people foolish. In his discourse, justice is wise, and partiality leads to fainting. If you understand the affair, you will be able to see the truth and be fair and reasonable, while the eclipse is the opposite. This sentence reveals the dialectical relationship between "public" and "biased", "bright" and "dark". It has a strong guiding significance for the cultivation of official morality and is extended to "justice is politically clear, and partiality is political darkness". Therefore, it has a great impact on future generations. Before the appearance of the six-character official slogan of "Gongsheng Minglian Shengwei", Xunzi's "Gongsheng Ming" became the inion of the front of the stone plaque in the bureaucratic, and these three words are the source of the six-character rumor.
When the time came to the early years of the Ming Dynasty in the Ming Dynasty, the Huozhou Department issued a celebrity, not an educator, but a local school--Cao Duan. The scholar who was born in Dianchi, Henan Province, although entering the officialdom, was not keen on his career, until his death was only nine. He devoted his life to the study of science and concurrently served as the head of the local Huoshan Academy, and was fascinated by the research work of science and education.
In terms of science, his achievements are great, and he has a great influence on the later development of science in the Ming Dynasty. His studies are based on practice and are imp年少轻狂之不良少年ortant to science.